UNIV Defensa de la vida

UNIV – Pro-vida // Pro-Life

http://www.escrivaobras.org/book/discursos_universitarios-punto-8.htm

El 9 de mayo de 1974, el Gran Canciller de la Universidad de Navarra presidió la ceremonia de investidura como doctores honoris causa, en Derecho, de Mons. Franz Hengsbach, Obispo de Essen, doctor en Teología por la Universidad de Münster y promotor y Presidente de la Acción «Adveniat» para ayudar a la Iglesia en Hispanoamérica; y en Medicina, del Prof. Jéróme Lejeune, de la Universidad de París. Mons. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer cerró el acto académico, celebrado en el Aula Magna, con el presente discurso.

On 9 May 1974, the Grand Chancellor of the University of Navarre presided over the investiture ceremony in which he conferred the Doctorate honoris causa upon: Msgr. Franz Hengsback, Bishop of Essen (Doctor of Laws), doctoral professor of Theology at the University of Münster and promoter and President of Adveniat in aid of the Church in Latin America; and upon Prof. Jéróme Lejeune, of the University of Paris (Doctor of Medicine). Msgr. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer closed the ceremonies at the Auditorium, with the following speech…

http://sites.google.com/site/stjosemariauniversity/

EXCERPT FROM SPEECH:

En su dilatada labor pastoral, Monseñor Hengsbach ha mostrado con hechos cómo se conjuga la predicación valiente e incansable de la fe, con la atención sacerdotal a los mineros del Ruhr, con la solicitud por la Iglesia en América Latina, y con el estudio riguroso de la Teología y el Derecho Canónico. Y no es casual que su primer escrito, en 1934, versase sobre la defensa de la vida, frente a criterios aberrantes que se abrían paso por entonces en su patria.

In his long pastoral work, Msgr. Hengsbach has shown with deeds how he combined a courageous and untiring preaching of the Faith, with his Priestly attention to the miners at Ruhr, as well as his concern for the Church in South America, along with his rigorous study of Theology and Canon Law.  And it was not mere chance that his first publication in 1934 would dwell on the topic of the defense of life, in the face of aberrant criteria that were being introduced in his fatherland during his time.

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La firme defensa de la vida humana ha llevado al mundo entero el nombre del Profesor Lejeune, de la Universidad de París, a quien la Ciencia universal reconoce unánimemente como uno de sus primeros y más altos investigadores en Genética, esa aventura maravillosa del entendimiento humano, que indaga el origen inmediato de la vida, y la lleva a su plenitud mediante los recursos descubiertos en el oficio inventivo y paciente del laboratorio y de la clínica.

The firm defense of human life has made famous in the entire world the name of Professor Lejeune, of the University of Paris, whom the world of Science recognizes unanimously as one of its first and highest researchers on Genetics, that wonderful adventure of human knowledge, which inspects the very origin of life: he has brought this field to its fullness through his unearthing of resources via his inventive, painstaking and patient work at the laboratory and the medical clinic.

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Aquí en este enlace se comparten varios sitios donde se encontrarán material precioso sobre la campaña PRO-VIDA (inglés y español)

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In the following link you’d find wonderful material and links in relation to this all-important PRO-LIFE campaign:

http://opusdeitoday.org/2010/05/pro-life/

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POPULATION and DEVELOPMENT

We’ve also created the following site so you may be aware of the economic arguments in favor of LIFE and FAMILY:

http://sites.google.com/site/populationanddevelopment/

PLEASE READ AND REFLECT. Thank you.

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¡A por la VIDA y la FAMILIA!

YES to Life! YES to Family!

🙂


UNIV Alasdair MacIntyre

Alasdair MacIntyre

Background (ENGLISH)

MacIntyre’s approach to moral philosophy has a number of complex strains which inform it. Although his project is largely characterized by an attempt to revive an Aristotelian conception of moral philosophy as sustained by the virtues, he nevertheless describes his own account of this attempt as a “peculiarly modern understanding” of the task.

This “peculiarly modern understanding” largely concerns MacIntyre’s approach to moral disputes. Unlike some analytic philosophers who try to generate moral consensus on the basis of an ideal of rationality, MacIntyre presents a historical narration of the development of ethics in order to illuminate the modern problem of “incommensurable” moral notions—i.e., moral arguments that proceed from incompatible premises. Following Hegel and Collingwood, he offers a “philosophical history” (which he distinguishes from both analytical and phenomenological approaches to philosophy) in which he concedes from the beginning that “there are no neutral standards available by appeal to which any rational agent whatsoever could determine” the conclusions of moral philosophy.

Indeed, one of MacIntyre’s major points in his most famous work, After Virtue, is that the failed attempt by various Enlightenment thinkers to furnish a final universal account of moral rationality led to the rejection of moral rationality altogether by subsequent thinkers such as Charles Stevenson, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Friedrich Nietzsche. On MacIntyre’s account, it is especially Nietzsche’s utter repudiation of the possibility of moral rationality that is the outcome of the Enlightenment’s mistaken quest for a final and definitive argument that will settle moral disputes into perpetuity by power of a calculative reason alone and without use of teleology

By contrast, MacIntyre is concerned with reclaiming various forms of moral rationality and argumentation that neither claim to utter finality and certainty (the mistaken project of the Enlightenment), but nevertheless do not simply bottom out into relativistic or emotivist denials of any moral rationality whatsoever (the mistaken conclusion of Nietzsche, Sartre and Stevenson). He does this by returning to the tradition of Aristotelian ethics with its teleological account of the good and moral persons which was originally rejected by the Enlightenment and which reached a fuller articulation in medieval writings of Thomas Aquinas. This Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition, he proposes, presents ‘the best theory so far’, both of how things are and how we ought to act.

More generally, according to MacIntyre it is the case that moral disputes always take place within and between rival traditions of thought that make recourse to a store of ideas, presuppositions, types of arguments and shared understandings and approaches that have been inherited from the past. Thus even though there is no definitive way for one tradition in moral philosophy to vanquish and exclude the possibility of another, nevertheless opposing views can call one another into question by various means including issues of internal coherence, imaginative reconstruction of dilemmas, epistemic crisis, and fruitfulness.

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Información (ESPAÑOL)

A diferencia de otros filósofos contemporáneos, que se centran en argumentos lógicos, analíticos o científicos, MacIntyre utiliza el sistema de la narración histórica, o de la filosofía narrativa. Un ejemplo claro es su libro After Virtue, o ‘Tras la virtud’, en el que explica el desarrollo de algunos conceptos éticos a lo largo de la historia. Entre los distintos tipos de investigación filosófica (tradiciones o escuelas) propone, sea en el ámbito del ser o en el del deber ser, el modelo que le parece más adecuado: el aristotélico. También lo utiliza en la introducción al pensamiento de la filósofa Edith Stein.

Ética de la virtud

MacIntyre es una figura clave en el reciente interés en la ética de la virtud, que pone como aspecto central de la ética los hábitos, las virtudes, y el conocimiento de cómo alcanza el individuo una vida buena, en la que encuentren plenitud todos los aspectos de la vida humana, en vez de centrarse en debates éticos específicos como el aborto. MacIntyre no omite hablar sobre esos temas particulares, sino que se acerca a ellos desde un contexto más amplio y menos legalista o normativista. Es éste un enfoque de la filosofía moral que demuestra cómo el juicio de un individuo nace del desarrollo del carácter.

MacIntyre subraya la importancia del bien moral definido en relación a una comunidad de personas involucradas en una práctica -concepto central de su obra After Virtue– que llama bienes internos o bienes de excelencia, en vez de centrarse en fenómenos independientes de una práctica, como la obligación de un agente moral (ética deontológica) o en las consecuencias de un acto moral particular (utilitarismo). La ética de la virtud suele estar asociada con autores pre-modernos (p. ej. PlatónAristótelesTomás de Aquino), aunque también se encuentra en otros sistemas éticos (p. ej. deontología kantiana). MacIntyre afirma que la síntesis de Tomás de Aquino del pensamiento de San Agustín con el de Aristóteles es más profundo que otras teorías modernas, al ocuparse del telos (finalidad) de una práctica social y de la vida humana, dentro del contexto en el cual la moralidad de los actos es evaluada.

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Extracto de 3 artículos en arvo.net:

http://arvo.net/filosofia-de-la-educacion/claves-para-educar-a-la-genera/gmx-niv148-con12364.htm

http://arvo.net/educacion-para-la-paz/dimension-etica-de-la-educacio/gmx-niv139-con10262.htm

http://arvo.net/ensayo-pensamiento/el-humanismo-civico-de-ale/gmx-niv432-con11169.htm

SUMMARY, IN ENGLISH:


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UNIV 2011 Movies

UNIV 2011  Philippines – through the lens of multi-awarded screenwriter Vanessa Valdez

“Mabuti’t pinili mo ang tama, sapagka’t yun ang makakapagpasaya sa atin… hindi yung nakakasaya, pero mali naman…” [I’m glad you chose that which is good/correct, coz that is what will make us happy; not all that makes us happy is the good/correct thing to do.]  Those are screenwriter Vanessa Valdez’ movie lines: the line of Maricel Soriano (Filipina movie actress) to Aga Muhlach (Filipino movie actor) in the movie “A Love Story”.

She delivered the message so clearly, using the lines she would always try to incorporate into her movies (scripts she writes), that some of the meanings of FREE that the dictionary would give you are:

= beloved

= love

= commitment

Also:

= Noble

= Joyful

She wished us to note that the person who is truly free is one who loves, is one who is noble and joyful, presumably because of having chosen what is GOOD. [See below for notions of freedom.]

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And for the “Decisively” part of the UNIV 2011 Theme “Living Freedom Decisively“, this is what she told us: if you look up the etymology of the word, you’d find “to cut off“.  But what do you cut off, or cut yourself off from? …from bondage, from that which ties us down… That is, what is freedom for?  Taking off from Victor Frankl’s “Man in Search of Meaning”, she indicated that this man who was imprisoned for so long, thinking of the beloved wife made him withstand all that cruelty…and realized that, if you have the good in your mind & heart, you can be free even if you are in prison.

The exciting part was when she showed us clips of the movies she’s written the script for.  [The clip above is from the film “One More Chance”…] Through this movie (starring Bea Alonzo and John Lloyd Cruz), she wanted to emphasize that Bea struggled to cut herself free… in order to, first, commit to herself, so that, afterward, she can commit herself to another.  (Full freedom, thus, consists in “freeing oneself from oneself” in order to arrive ultimately at gift of self.)

In the movie “A Love Story”, she indicated that she managed to portray the real notion of freedom, through the lines of Maricel Soriano (quoted above).  She showed us the epilogue of the movie, showing Aga Muhlach receiving consoling words from his Dad (with Alzheimer’s) “I am proud of my son…”.

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For the plot of the movie ‘A Love Story’, see:

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0990433/

Moral of the story:

What if you met the woman you wanted to make your wife after you married someone else? … In the end, Ian, Joanna and Karyn learn – though in the most painful ways – the true meaning of unconditional love and forgiveness.

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For UNIV 2011 and its theme, see:

http://univforum.org/

http://sites.google.com/site/alizaracelis/univ-2011

For notions of FREEDOM and Responsibility, see:

http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p3s1c1a3.htm#I

Important:

“Freedom is that characteristic of our will by which we can choose what is good, and which is fully acquired in self-surrender and love.” [Taken from Fr. M. Guzman, “Question and Answer CATHOLIC CATECHISM”, Mandaluyong City, Philippines, 1995]

🙂

Learn more about BARBARA NICOLOSI, who founded ActOne Program, and whose blog is called ‘ChurchOfTheMasses‘:

“Theaters are the new Church of the masses – where people sit huddled in the dark listening to people in the light tell them what it is to be human.” – 1930s Theater critic.

🙂

UNIV in Bacolod

Bacolod City, Philippines

Bacolod City is the capital of Negros Occidental. Having a total of 499,497 inhabitants as of August 1, 2007, it is the most populous city in the Western Visayas Region.  It is currently ranked as the 17th most populous city in the Philippines.  It is part of a metropolitan area called Metro Bacolod, which includes the cities of Silay and Talisay.  It is notable for its world famous MassKara Festival held during the 3rd week of October. Known for being a relatively friendly city, it bears the nicknames “City of Smiles” and “Football City of the Philippines”.

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UNIV Orientation, 10 July 2010:

33 attendees from 5 schools! 7 paper topics generated!

This was a milestone for Kasanag Study Center! 🙂 Here’s the Program we followed:

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We first introduced UNIV –an international student research congress– and its nature and aims.  We referred to the content of the official website. Then we proceeded to talk about the 2011 theme which is FREEDOM.  Then we showed them the “Conceptual Framework” for generating topic ideas… We needed about 1.5 hours to do this…

Then the 2nd part –which was the practical, ‘workshop’, portion– was when we asked the attendees to share with us the specific paper topics that occurred to them as the UNIV orientation was going on… At this point, several very interesting paper topics were suggested:

  • Nursing students: “Patients’ Rights and their upholding: How aware are Nursing Students and Medical Personnel?”
  • Engineering students: “Rights of the Unborn and life-related Legislation”
  • Sociology majors: “Notions of Freedom from the Perspective of Indigenous Peoples”
  • “Freedom and FASHION: Are modern-day fashion trends truly ‘free’?”
  • “Same-Sex ‘Marriage’: Are they ‘free’ to do this?”

Break-out session: Then we broke them up into groups so that the students who wished to join these work groups could do the following: discuss the topic, write out an OUTLINE of the paper, and write the ‘Research Question’ they would tackle… At this stage, 2 new groups were formed, with 2 additional topics:

  • “A Survey of officers of Negros Universities’ Student Governments on their Freedom Advocacies”
  • The New Government Administration of the Philippines: How Freedom-oriented is it? Issues and Proposals”

We then re-convened so that each group can read out its paper OUTLINE and Research Question. Then came the giving out of the CERTIFICATES of PARTICIPATION to all of the attendees… To wrap up, we called on everyone to COMMIT themselves to seeing their papers through to the end (i.e., submission by first week of January 2011)… 🙂

*Jeny-Rose is to upload onto the Kasanag Study Center FB group the individual certificate-handing photos.

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Please visit the official UNIV Web site:

http://univforum.org/

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Click here for a simple GUIDE to RESEARCH:

https://youniv.wordpress.com/category/univ-research/

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Other related articles:

UNIV 2011 “Freedom”

UNIV “Setting Foundations for the Future”

UNIV 2010 Winning Videos!

🙂

UNIV 2011 4th of July

4th of July and Freedom

When 4th of July comes, there come to mind concepts like freedom and independence.  But what really is FREEDOM?  Are those nations that declare themselves true democracies truly free?  What about judicial systems and national laws that stifle true personal freedoms and go against such basic human rights as right to life and religious freedom?

Cuando venga la fecha 4 de julio ―que es muy importante para la zona norteamericana―, vienen a la mente los conceptos de ‘libertad e independencia’.  Pero parece que aun las naciones ‘más libres’, más ‘democráticas’ carecen de la verdadera libertad: las cortes y los sistemas judiciales legislan contra la vida, p.ej., como hemos visto en España y en EE.UU., entre otras naciones.

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I strongly suggest that students doing UNIV tackle the topic:

Querría sugerir que los universitari@s aborden el tema:

“Anti-Life Courts and Laws: Freedom? or License?”

La ley pro-muerte: libertad? or libertinaje?

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The links that follow are just a few of the many references you can have on this very important issue…

Los enlaces que siguen son solamente una pequeña muestra de la bibliografía que se puede encontrar acerca de este tema importantísimo…

United States:

http://www.ruthblog.org/2010/07/01/our-broken-confirmation-process/

http://www.lifesitenews.com/ldn/2010/jun/10062806.html

España:

http://manifiestoporlavida.wordpress.com/

http://www.provida.es/comunicados.htm

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I would likewise highly recommend the sources found on this link:

Recomendaría, como recurso principal, los enlaces que encontraréis aquí:

http://opusdeitoday.org/2010/05/pro-life/

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UNIV 2010 Paper

UNIV 2010 Research Paper presented in Final Paper Presentation (Philippines)

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Authentic Human Development and Social Entrepreneurship

Author: Valeroso, Carmina Angelica C.

(St. Scholastica’s College Manila)

INTRODUCTION:

“If the soul is left in darkness, sins will be committed.”

Poverty is a type of darkness in society which is the root of some social ills. Nevertheless, there is much hope that this darkness can be dispelled.

In relation to this year’s UNIV theme “Can Christianity Inspire a Global Culture?”, this paper entitled “Authentic Human Development in Poverty Alleviation through Social Entrepreneurship”, aims to study the influence of Christianity on the culture of entrepreneurship as well as on poverty alleviation.

Based on a 2006 data of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, poverty afflicts approximately 15 million Filipinos.  The inaccessibility of some areas makes it a daunting task for government, NGOs and large corporations to execute their poverty alleviation programs.  Social entrepreneurship may be one of the means to meet the needs of the poor in unserved areas since it uses sustainable and scalable approaches.

In answering a social problem such as poverty, the Pope cautions against solutions which create a culture that “detaches itself from its life-giving roots, [because] then it will not become more reasonable or purer, but will fall apart and disintegrate.”

Keeping the Pope’s message in mind, the following objectives were formulated (see above).

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:

The framework illustrates how Christianity teaches that authentic human development concerns the material and spiritual growth of a person, including her transcendent dimension. This Christian idea of authentic human development may influence an entrepreneur to venture into some social enterprise which seeks to alleviate poverty. As depicted in the framework, poverty has multiple indicators and the greater the effort to address each indicator, the greater is the contribution to the development of the person.

METHODOLOGY:

The methodology is as follows:

The Christian definition of authentic human development was extracted from Pope Benedict XVI’s encyclical “Caritas in Veritate”.

Meanwhile, the indicators of a multi-dimensional poverty were based on a research entitled “Missing Dimensions of Poverty Data” (Alkire, 2007).

Indicators of Multidimensional Poverty

Dimension Indicators
Material Well Being income poverty, food shortage, housing quality, access to water and sanitation
Bodily Well being malnutrition, child mortality
Mental well being intelligence, psychological well being (meaning, autonomy, competence, relatedness), subjective well being (happiness and over all comfort)
Productivity employment, quality of work (protection, safety, time use, discouraged unemployment, perceptions)
Security victims of violence and theft, perceptions of violence
Social well being Shame (stigma of poverty and shame proneness), humiliation (respect and fair treatment, discrimination, internal humiliation)
Empowerment freedom of choice and actions, control over personal decisions, autonomy, ability to change life (lifestyle, mentality, mind set, outlook), ability to change others/ community

A case study of two (2) social enterprises:

  • Hapinoy; and
  • Rags2Riches

was conducted. The beneficiaries of these 2 businesses are mothers of families in selected communities in Luzon and are also more familiarly referred to as Nanays (moms).

Motivations of social entrepreneurs were gathered from interviews with two businessmen.

In answer to the first objective: The encyclical describes authentic human development as growth in every single dimension of man, that is, in his material and spiritual dimensions, including his transcendent dimension. Pope Benedict XVI emphasized growth in the transcendent dimension, which entails growth in the spirit.  The Holy Father mentions that this growth occurs when man’s “soul comes to know itself and the truths that God has implanted deep within, when he enters into a dialogue with himself and his Creator”.

In answer to Objective no. 2:  Seven (7) indicators were enumerated by Alkire, namely, poverty in:  Material Well-Being, Bodily Well-Being, Security, Work, Mental Well-Being, Social Well-Being, and Empowerment.

To meet the third objective: The conceptual framework shows that authentic human development involves material and spiritual growth.  Material growth can be seen through material and bodily well-being while spiritual growth may be seen through security, work, mental well-being, social well-being, and empowerment.

Hapinoy and Rags2Riches were examined based on the indicators.

Hapinoy is a program of MicroVentures, Inc. which aims to increase the sales and profits of micro-entrepreneur sari-sari store owners nationwide.

On the other hand, Rags2Riches is a business which creates ethical and eco-friendly high-end designer fashion masterpieces and home accessories.  It aims to solve the two predominant faces of injustice in Payatas:  unfair trade and environmental degradation.

The results regarding how Hapinoy and Rags2Riches addressed the material and spiritual growth of the Nanays (moms) will now be presented.

RESULTS:

Through Hapinoy and Rags2Riches, the material growth can be seen in the increase in income.  (Those in Hapinoy experienced an increase in sales from less than a hundred thousand monthly to half a million;  while those in Rags2Riches – who previously earned 1 to 2 pesos per rug – were enabled to receive at least the minimum wage daily. The Nanays were also able to expand their stores and acquire other equipment and facilities.

Material growth was also seen through the desire to acquire bodily well-being. The Moms used their higher earnings to provide for household needs. Good nutrition also became a conscious consideration for the Moms.

Moving on to how spiritual growth was achieved, the relevant indicators were examined.  Spiritual growth through having a sense of security was manifested especially in expanding the freedoms they value and have reason to value.  Mental well-being is another indicator related to spiritual growth. Hapinoy and Rags2Riches fed the intellect of the Moms through giving them training and support services so that they can acquire more knowledge regarding entrepreneurship and business environments.

The Moms were enabled to set higher goals for themselves and their family as well as to exercise their freedom of choice and action.  Character development may be seen in their practice of the virtues, such as commitment and simplicity.  The Moms have also learned to place more value in life, happiness and their relationship with God.

CONCLUSION:

Christianity teaches that authentic human development involves growth in the individual’s totality as body and soul, in every single dimension of man including the transcendent.

This study sought to show that the idea of authentic human development, through concern for both material and spiritual well-being, should imbue the social entrepreneur when venturing into social entrepreneurship. This study has highlighted specific cases where social entrepreneurship has also helped alleviate poverty, in the process of creating an enabling environment for the marginalized so they can fulfill and develop themselves.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

Learning from the experience of social entrepreneurship, some recommendations can be taken up by the different sectors of society.

  • The youth can be encouraged to get involved in different volunteer activities since these provide them the opportunity to give themselves to others.
  • Programs can also be launched to help parents train their children to be more socially responsible.
  • Giving support to schools which offer Christian formation enables these institutions to continue imparting values through their curriculum, outreach programs and other activities. Children who are exposed to these may more often include Christian ideals in their social behaviors.
  • Dialogue with the authorities can also be kept so that they are provided with data to determine the real cause of poverty. There would be a need to invest time in studying the needs of the poor so as to address all dimensions of the person.
  • Opportunities can also be offered for social entrepreneurs to strengthen their spiritual life and deepen their relationship with God since they will be working in a business model which is others-oriented.

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UNIV 2011 Jacques Maritain

Jacques Maritain

ENGLISH

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/maritain/

http://maritain.nd.edu/jmc/

Jacques Maritain (1882–1973), French philosopher and political thinker, was one of the principal exponents of Thomism in the twentieth century and an influential interpreter of the thought of St Thomas Aquinas.

Maritain saw himself as working in continuity with the thought of Thomas Aquinas, and his writings frequently contain quotations from and references to Thomas’ texts. While his turn to Catholicism and his intellectual itinerary were largely due to personal reasons and to the influence of friends, his defense of Catholic thought and Thomistic philosophy were undoubtedly affected by events involving his adopted church.

Maritain’s early writings sought to address some of the concerns arising out of these events. Maritain took it upon himself to develop some aspects of Thomistic philosophy to address the problems of the contemporary world.

Maritain’s most enduring legacy is undoubtedly his moral and political philosophy, and the influence of his work on human rights can be seen, not only in the United Nations Declaration of 1948 but, it has been claimed, in a number of national declarations, such as the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the preamble to the Constitution of the Fourth French Republic (1946) — this last was likely a reflection of Maritain’s lengthy correspondence with the French war hero and, later, President, General Charles DeGaulle. Maritain’s Christian humanism and personalism have also had a significant influence in the social encyclicals of Pope Paul VI and in the thought of Pope John Paul II.

Maritain’s moral and political philosophy lies within what may be called the Aristotelian-Thomistic natural law tradition. Maritain held, however, that Aristotelian ethics, by itself, was inadequate because it lacked knowledge of humanity’s ultimate end. The Thomistic view — that there is a law in human nature that is derivative of (though knowable separately from) a divine or eternal law and that humanity’s ‘end’ goes beyond anything attainable in this life — was, Maritain thought, a significant advance on what Aristotle had provided.

Following Aquinas, Maritain maintained that there is a natural law that is ‘unwritten’ but immanent in nature. Specifically, given that nature has a teleological character, one can know what a thing ‘should’ do or how it ‘should’ be used by examining its ‘end’ and the ‘normality of its functioning.’ Maritain therefore defines ‘natural law’ as “an order or a disposition that the human reason may discover and according to which the human will must act to accord itself with the necessary ends of the human being” (La loi naturelle, p. 21; see Man and the State, p. 86). This law “prescribes our most fundamental duties” (Man and the State, p. 95) and is coextensive with morality.

There is, Maritain holds, a single natural law governing all beings with a human nature. The first principles of this law are knownconnaturally, not rationally or through concepts — by an activity that Maritain, following Aquinas, called ‘synderesis.’ Thus, ‘natural ‘law’ is ‘natural’ because it not only reflects human nature, but is known naturally. Maritain acknowledges, however, that knowledge of the natural law varies throughout humanity and according to individuals’ capacities and abilities, and he speaks of growth in an individual’s or a collectivity’s moral awareness. This allows him to reply to the challenge that there cannot be any universal, natural law because no such law is known or respected universally. Again, though this law is progressively known, it is never known completely, and so the natural law is never exhausted in any particular articulation of it. This recognition of the historical element in human consciousness did not, however, prevent Maritain from holding that this law is objective and binding.

A key notion in Maritain’s moral philosophy is that of human freedom. He says that the ‘end’ of humanity is to be free but, by ‘freedom,’ he does not mean license or pure rational autonomy, but the realisation of the human person in accord with his or her nature — specifically, the achievement of moral and spiritual perfection. Maritain’s moral philosophy, then, cannot be considered independently of his analysis of human nature. Maritain distinguishes between the human being as an individual and as a person. Human beings are ‘individuals’ who are related to a common, social order of which they are parts. But they are also persons. The person is a ‘whole’, is an object of dignity, “must be treated as an end” (Les droits de l’homme, p. 84) and has a transcendent destiny. In both the material and the spiritual order, however, human beings participate in a ‘common good.’ Thus, one is an individual in virtue of being a material being; one is a person so far as one is capable of intellectual activity and freedom. Still, while distinct, both elements are equally necessary to being a human being. It is in virtue of their individuality that human beings have obligations to the social order, but it is in virtue of their personality that they cannot be subordinated to that order. Maritain’s emphasis on the value of the human person has been described as a form of personalism, which he saw as avia media between individualism and socialism.

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At the time of his death, Maritain was arguably the best known Catholic philosopher in the world. The breadth of his philosophical work, his influence in the social philosophy of the Catholic Church, and his ardent defenses of human rights made him one of the central figures of his times.

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For the topic of Personalism, click here:

Personalism in a Nutshell

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ESPAÑOL

http://www.humanismointegral.com/Indices/1.%20Maritain_Gral.htm#cinco

Jacques Maritain fue uno de los más grandes pensadores del siglo XX. Fue un hombre de profunda pasión religiosa, filosófica y cívica, así como un testigo activo y participante en los acontecimientos de su tiempo.

Fue uno de los padres de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Hombre de 1948 y uno de los grandes defensores del ideal democrático amenazado por las ideologías totalitarias del siglo pasado. Sus reflexiones sobre democracia, arte y ciencia constituyen un instrumento sólido y efectivo para la interpretación de los cambios que experimenta el mundo de hoy.

Jacques Maritain reintrodujo la riqueza universal y milenaria del pensamiento cristiano al abordar los temas más apreciados por el hombre contemporáneo: desde su sufrimiento a la acción política y social; desde la libertad a la belleza; desde la adhesión a la fe a la autonomía de la razón.

El suyo fue un mensaje de libertad y de independencia de la inteligencia, de vigilancia crítica de los tiempos y de compromiso con un futuro de diálogo y cooperación entre los hombres y las culturas. Maritain fue un filósofo de la nueva frontera mundial y su humanismo integral definió el alma de nuestra villa global.

Una breve biografía de Jacques Maritain:

http://www.humanismointegral.com/DOCS_1_Maritain/1_DOCS_BIOGRAFICOS/111_4_Cronologia.html

A principio de los años 30, visitó Canadá y EE.UU. (por la cual había una conexión íntima entre Francia y el Nuevo Mundo); durante esta época se publicó el libro “Libertad en el Mundo Moderno”.

Hacia 1936, con ocasión de su viaje a América Latina, cuando los problemas sociales habían relegado en todas partes a un segundo plano los problemas estéticos, filosóficos y religiosos, que ocuparon hasta entonces a las nuevas generaciones, fue nuevamente Maritain quien nos salvó de ciertos errores y de ciertas ilusiones políticas, que en mayor o menor grado nos habían deslumbrado.

El autor de ‘Del régimen temporal y de la libertad’ nos abrió un nuevo camino en el terreno político, así como antes nos lo abriera en el metafísico. El fundamento era el mismo; el sentido común. Desde la filosofía del sentido común, el maestro de Meudon nos revelaba la política del sentido común.

http://arvo.net/etica-y-politica/bien-comun-la-maduracion-de-un-concepto/gmx-niv894-con16781.htm

Para Jacques y Raissa Maritain: “Lo que constituye el bien común de la sociedad política no es sólo el conjunto de los bienes o servicios de utilidad pública o de interés nacional (carreteras, puertos, escuelas, etc.) que suponen la organización de la vida común, ni las buenas finanzas del Estado, ni su potencia militar; no es solamente el entramado de leyes justas, de buenas costumbres o de sabias instituciones que dan su estructura a la nación, ni la herencia de sus grandes recuerdos históricos, de sus símbolos y de sus glorias, de sus tradiciones vivas y de sus tesoros de cultura. El bien común comprende todas estas cosas, pero aún mucho más, y más profundo y más humano; pues también y ante todo comprende la propia suma (muy diferente de una simple colección de unidades yuxtapuestas, pues, como Aristóteles nos enseña, incluso en el orden matemático seis es algo distinto de tres más tres), comprende la suma, decimos, o la integración sociológica de cuanto hay de conciencia cívica, de virtudes políticas y de sentido del derecho y de la libertad, y de todo cuanto hay de actividad, de prosperidad material y de riquezas del espíritu, de sabiduría hereditaria inconscientemente activa, de rectitud moral, de justicia, de amistad, de felicidad, de virtud y de heroísmo en las vidas individuales de los miembros de la comunidad, debido a que todo esto es, en cierta medida, comunicable, y revierte sobre cada miembro de la sociedad, ayudándole así a perfeccionar su vida y su libertad de persona. Es todo esto lo que constituye auténtica vida humana de la multitud”[10].

Los Maritain son tomistas pero al momento de describir al bien común colocan el acento en la dimensión espiritual del mismo. Para ellos el individuo humano es para el Estado pero el Estado es para la persona. Este aparente juego conceptual significa que “el hombre no está totalmente ordenado a la sociedad política por cuanto es en sí mismo y por cuanto hay en él”[11]. El ser humano es miembro de una comunidad y en cuanto a esto se le subordina. Sin embargo, el ser humano es más que un miembro de la comunidad. Posee una dimensión trascendente a todo lo material. Así es que el Estado que incluye en sí mismo a los individuos ha de tener como fin a la persona, es decir, al hombre integralmente considerado, al sujeto individual organizado y animado por el espíritu.

El insistir que la persona humana es trascendente a toda institución por su condición de  sustancia corpórea que posee espíritu situó a los Maritain dentro del ámbito de los «personalistas». De hecho la amistad de Emmanuel Mounier – padre del personalismo contemporáneo –y de los Maritain fue intensa y prolongada. Los Maritain conformaron parte del círculo de intelectuales en torno a la revista Esprit fundada por Mounier. Todos en este ambiente afirmaban la trascendencia de la persona respecto de cualquier sistema. Con diferentes lenguajes más o menos todos intuían que la persona no es una cosa y no puede ser usada como mero medio, como instrumento, como herramienta.

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Para el tema del PERSONALISMO, haced clic aquí:

Personalismo en resumen

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ITALIANO

Libertà in Maritain

1) Maritain in “Humanisme integral” (1936) ha criticato duramente i fascismi permettendo ai cattolici di abbandonare le visioni del passato e di recuperare un rapporto positivo con le libertà moderne.


2) In “L’uomo e lo Stato” determina il rapporto tra la persona e lo Stato.La persona è nello Stato ma non si risolve interamente nello Stato. Il suo fine ultimo è trascendente.Ciò significa che lo Stato non può essere totale, deve rispettare diritti e libertà della pesona.La libertà i i diritti non sono fondati ma “riconosciuti” dallo Stato che nel rispetto di quei diritti fonda la sua legittimità.


3) La libertà non è anarchia – fare ciò che uno vuole. La libertà trova il suo ordine nel “fine” naturale. Vi sono due forme di libertà: la libertà da (negativa) e la libertà di (positiva).
La “libertà da” è la libertà dagli ostacoli che la limitano, l’opposizione alle catene.
La “libertà di” è la libertà di essere, la libertà di realizzazione. Questa porta alla distruzione quando avviene contro la natura dell’io; alla realizzazione quando perfeziona la natura dell’io secondo il suo fine.

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