Valor educativo y pedagógico de la libertad

Valor educativo y pedagógico de la libertad

San Josemaría – Discursos sobre la Universidad

http://www.escrivaobras.org/book/discursos_universitarios-punto-5.htm

El 21 de noviembre de 1965, Su Santidad el Papa Pablo VI inauguró oficialmente el Centro Elis, obra corporativa de enseñanza del Opus Dei en Roma. Con ocasión de esa ceremonia, el Santo Padre bendijo la imagen de Santa María Madre del Amor Hermoso, situada en la Ermita del campus de Pamplona de la Universidad de Navarra. Mons. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer pronunció las palabras que aquí se recogen.

On 21 November 1965, His Holiness Pope Paul VI officially inaugurated Centro Elis, an educational corporate work of apostolate of Opus Dei in Rome. On that occasion, the Holy Father blessed the image of Our Lady, Mother of Fair Love, belonging to the Shrine of the Pamplona campus of the University of Navarre.  Msgr. Josemaría Escrivá spoke the following words…

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Extracto // Excerpts:

En estas aulas, Padre Santo, la juventud obrera que vive en el Centro y que acude a las clases y aprende un oficio noble y útil, se forma cristianamente en la convicción de que el hombre ha sido creado por Diosut operaretur. Esta juventud, Padre Santo, aprende que el trabajo santificado y santificador es parte esencial de la vocación del cristiano responsable, que es consciente de su dignidad, y sabe además que tiene el deber de santificarse y de difundir el Reino de Dios precisamente en ese trabajo y mediante ese trabajo que contribuye a la edificación de la ciudad terrena.

In these classrooms, Holy Father, the working young people who live in this Center and go to class to learn a noble and useful trade, are formed in a Christian manner that man has been created by God ut operaretur. These youths, Holy Father, learn that work, sanctified and sanctifying, is an essential part of the vocation of a responsible Christian, who is aware of his dignity, and who moreover knows that he ought to sanctify and spread the Kingdom of God precisely in his work and through his work which contributes to the building up of the earthly city.

En este ambiente sereno y alegre, similar al de todas las actividades que el Opus Dei desarrolla por gracia de Dios, en todo el mundo, procuramos, Beatísimo Padre, que se respire un clima de libertad, en el que todos se sientan hermanos, bien lejos de la amargura que proviene de la soledad o de la indiferencia. Un clima en el que aprenden a apreciar y a vivir la mutua comprensión, la alegría de una convivencia leal entre los hombres. Amamos y respetamos la libertad, y creemos en su valor educativo y pedagógico. Estamos convencidos de que en un clima así se forman almas con libertad interior, y se forjan hombres capaces de vivir responsablemente la doctrina de Cristo, de poner en práctica virilmente la fe, de practicar con alegría la obediencia interior y devota a las enseñanzas de la Iglesia —entre las que ocupan lugar destacado las de su doctrina social— capaces de amar con todo su corazón y con todas sus fuerzas a la Iglesia de Dios y al Romano Pontífice.

In this serene and happy environment, which is the same as that in every other activity carried out by Opus Dei by the grace of God, we try our best, Holy Father, to ensure that people breathe an air of freedom, in which all of us feel ourselves as brothers/sisters of one another: the joy of a loyal living-together among men and women.  We love and respect freedom, and we believe in its educational and pedagogical value.  We are convinced that in an environment like that, we are able to form souls with interior freedom, and to forge men and women capable of living responsibly the doctrine of Christ, of putting the faith into practice in a manly fashion, of practicing joyfully that interior and devoted obedience to the teachings of Holy Mother Church –among which stand out Her teachings on Social Doctrine–, capable of loving with all their heart and with all their might the Church and the Roman Pontiff.

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UNIV Defensa de la vida

UNIV – Pro-vida // Pro-Life

http://www.escrivaobras.org/book/discursos_universitarios-punto-8.htm

El 9 de mayo de 1974, el Gran Canciller de la Universidad de Navarra presidió la ceremonia de investidura como doctores honoris causa, en Derecho, de Mons. Franz Hengsbach, Obispo de Essen, doctor en Teología por la Universidad de Münster y promotor y Presidente de la Acción «Adveniat» para ayudar a la Iglesia en Hispanoamérica; y en Medicina, del Prof. Jéróme Lejeune, de la Universidad de París. Mons. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer cerró el acto académico, celebrado en el Aula Magna, con el presente discurso.

On 9 May 1974, the Grand Chancellor of the University of Navarre presided over the investiture ceremony in which he conferred the Doctorate honoris causa upon: Msgr. Franz Hengsback, Bishop of Essen (Doctor of Laws), doctoral professor of Theology at the University of Münster and promoter and President of Adveniat in aid of the Church in Latin America; and upon Prof. Jéróme Lejeune, of the University of Paris (Doctor of Medicine). Msgr. Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer closed the ceremonies at the Auditorium, with the following speech…

http://sites.google.com/site/stjosemariauniversity/

EXCERPT FROM SPEECH:

En su dilatada labor pastoral, Monseñor Hengsbach ha mostrado con hechos cómo se conjuga la predicación valiente e incansable de la fe, con la atención sacerdotal a los mineros del Ruhr, con la solicitud por la Iglesia en América Latina, y con el estudio riguroso de la Teología y el Derecho Canónico. Y no es casual que su primer escrito, en 1934, versase sobre la defensa de la vida, frente a criterios aberrantes que se abrían paso por entonces en su patria.

In his long pastoral work, Msgr. Hengsbach has shown with deeds how he combined a courageous and untiring preaching of the Faith, with his Priestly attention to the miners at Ruhr, as well as his concern for the Church in South America, along with his rigorous study of Theology and Canon Law.  And it was not mere chance that his first publication in 1934 would dwell on the topic of the defense of life, in the face of aberrant criteria that were being introduced in his fatherland during his time.

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La firme defensa de la vida humana ha llevado al mundo entero el nombre del Profesor Lejeune, de la Universidad de París, a quien la Ciencia universal reconoce unánimemente como uno de sus primeros y más altos investigadores en Genética, esa aventura maravillosa del entendimiento humano, que indaga el origen inmediato de la vida, y la lleva a su plenitud mediante los recursos descubiertos en el oficio inventivo y paciente del laboratorio y de la clínica.

The firm defense of human life has made famous in the entire world the name of Professor Lejeune, of the University of Paris, whom the world of Science recognizes unanimously as one of its first and highest researchers on Genetics, that wonderful adventure of human knowledge, which inspects the very origin of life: he has brought this field to its fullness through his unearthing of resources via his inventive, painstaking and patient work at the laboratory and the medical clinic.

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Aquí en este enlace se comparten varios sitios donde se encontrarán material precioso sobre la campaña PRO-VIDA (inglés y español)

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In the following link you’d find wonderful material and links in relation to this all-important PRO-LIFE campaign:

http://opusdeitoday.org/2010/05/pro-life/

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POPULATION and DEVELOPMENT

We’ve also created the following site so you may be aware of the economic arguments in favor of LIFE and FAMILY:

http://sites.google.com/site/populationanddevelopment/

PLEASE READ AND REFLECT. Thank you.

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¡A por la VIDA y la FAMILIA!

YES to Life! YES to Family!

🙂


UNIV Alasdair MacIntyre

Alasdair MacIntyre

Background (ENGLISH)

MacIntyre’s approach to moral philosophy has a number of complex strains which inform it. Although his project is largely characterized by an attempt to revive an Aristotelian conception of moral philosophy as sustained by the virtues, he nevertheless describes his own account of this attempt as a “peculiarly modern understanding” of the task.

This “peculiarly modern understanding” largely concerns MacIntyre’s approach to moral disputes. Unlike some analytic philosophers who try to generate moral consensus on the basis of an ideal of rationality, MacIntyre presents a historical narration of the development of ethics in order to illuminate the modern problem of “incommensurable” moral notions—i.e., moral arguments that proceed from incompatible premises. Following Hegel and Collingwood, he offers a “philosophical history” (which he distinguishes from both analytical and phenomenological approaches to philosophy) in which he concedes from the beginning that “there are no neutral standards available by appeal to which any rational agent whatsoever could determine” the conclusions of moral philosophy.

Indeed, one of MacIntyre’s major points in his most famous work, After Virtue, is that the failed attempt by various Enlightenment thinkers to furnish a final universal account of moral rationality led to the rejection of moral rationality altogether by subsequent thinkers such as Charles Stevenson, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Friedrich Nietzsche. On MacIntyre’s account, it is especially Nietzsche’s utter repudiation of the possibility of moral rationality that is the outcome of the Enlightenment’s mistaken quest for a final and definitive argument that will settle moral disputes into perpetuity by power of a calculative reason alone and without use of teleology

By contrast, MacIntyre is concerned with reclaiming various forms of moral rationality and argumentation that neither claim to utter finality and certainty (the mistaken project of the Enlightenment), but nevertheless do not simply bottom out into relativistic or emotivist denials of any moral rationality whatsoever (the mistaken conclusion of Nietzsche, Sartre and Stevenson). He does this by returning to the tradition of Aristotelian ethics with its teleological account of the good and moral persons which was originally rejected by the Enlightenment and which reached a fuller articulation in medieval writings of Thomas Aquinas. This Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition, he proposes, presents ‘the best theory so far’, both of how things are and how we ought to act.

More generally, according to MacIntyre it is the case that moral disputes always take place within and between rival traditions of thought that make recourse to a store of ideas, presuppositions, types of arguments and shared understandings and approaches that have been inherited from the past. Thus even though there is no definitive way for one tradition in moral philosophy to vanquish and exclude the possibility of another, nevertheless opposing views can call one another into question by various means including issues of internal coherence, imaginative reconstruction of dilemmas, epistemic crisis, and fruitfulness.

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Información (ESPAÑOL)

A diferencia de otros filósofos contemporáneos, que se centran en argumentos lógicos, analíticos o científicos, MacIntyre utiliza el sistema de la narración histórica, o de la filosofía narrativa. Un ejemplo claro es su libro After Virtue, o ‘Tras la virtud’, en el que explica el desarrollo de algunos conceptos éticos a lo largo de la historia. Entre los distintos tipos de investigación filosófica (tradiciones o escuelas) propone, sea en el ámbito del ser o en el del deber ser, el modelo que le parece más adecuado: el aristotélico. También lo utiliza en la introducción al pensamiento de la filósofa Edith Stein.

Ética de la virtud

MacIntyre es una figura clave en el reciente interés en la ética de la virtud, que pone como aspecto central de la ética los hábitos, las virtudes, y el conocimiento de cómo alcanza el individuo una vida buena, en la que encuentren plenitud todos los aspectos de la vida humana, en vez de centrarse en debates éticos específicos como el aborto. MacIntyre no omite hablar sobre esos temas particulares, sino que se acerca a ellos desde un contexto más amplio y menos legalista o normativista. Es éste un enfoque de la filosofía moral que demuestra cómo el juicio de un individuo nace del desarrollo del carácter.

MacIntyre subraya la importancia del bien moral definido en relación a una comunidad de personas involucradas en una práctica -concepto central de su obra After Virtue– que llama bienes internos o bienes de excelencia, en vez de centrarse en fenómenos independientes de una práctica, como la obligación de un agente moral (ética deontológica) o en las consecuencias de un acto moral particular (utilitarismo). La ética de la virtud suele estar asociada con autores pre-modernos (p. ej. PlatónAristótelesTomás de Aquino), aunque también se encuentra en otros sistemas éticos (p. ej. deontología kantiana). MacIntyre afirma que la síntesis de Tomás de Aquino del pensamiento de San Agustín con el de Aristóteles es más profundo que otras teorías modernas, al ocuparse del telos (finalidad) de una práctica social y de la vida humana, dentro del contexto en el cual la moralidad de los actos es evaluada.

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Extracto de 3 artículos en arvo.net:

http://arvo.net/filosofia-de-la-educacion/claves-para-educar-a-la-genera/gmx-niv148-con12364.htm

http://arvo.net/educacion-para-la-paz/dimension-etica-de-la-educacio/gmx-niv139-con10262.htm

http://arvo.net/ensayo-pensamiento/el-humanismo-civico-de-ale/gmx-niv432-con11169.htm

SUMMARY, IN ENGLISH:


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Freedom lecture

Lecture on ‘Freedom’ for my BA 198 class:

“Freedom is that characteristic of our will by which we can choose what is good, and which is fully acquired in self-surrender and love.”



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SOURCES:

Libertas, by Leo XIII

Truth and Freedom, by Joseph Ratzinger

Commentary on Leo XIII’s Libertas

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UNIV in Bacolod

Bacolod City, Philippines

Bacolod City is the capital of Negros Occidental. Having a total of 499,497 inhabitants as of August 1, 2007, it is the most populous city in the Western Visayas Region.  It is currently ranked as the 17th most populous city in the Philippines.  It is part of a metropolitan area called Metro Bacolod, which includes the cities of Silay and Talisay.  It is notable for its world famous MassKara Festival held during the 3rd week of October. Known for being a relatively friendly city, it bears the nicknames “City of Smiles” and “Football City of the Philippines”.

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UNIV Orientation, 10 July 2010:

33 attendees from 5 schools! 7 paper topics generated!

This was a milestone for Kasanag Study Center! 🙂 Here’s the Program we followed:

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We first introduced UNIV –an international student research congress– and its nature and aims.  We referred to the content of the official website. Then we proceeded to talk about the 2011 theme which is FREEDOM.  Then we showed them the “Conceptual Framework” for generating topic ideas… We needed about 1.5 hours to do this…

Then the 2nd part –which was the practical, ‘workshop’, portion– was when we asked the attendees to share with us the specific paper topics that occurred to them as the UNIV orientation was going on… At this point, several very interesting paper topics were suggested:

  • Nursing students: “Patients’ Rights and their upholding: How aware are Nursing Students and Medical Personnel?”
  • Engineering students: “Rights of the Unborn and life-related Legislation”
  • Sociology majors: “Notions of Freedom from the Perspective of Indigenous Peoples”
  • “Freedom and FASHION: Are modern-day fashion trends truly ‘free’?”
  • “Same-Sex ‘Marriage’: Are they ‘free’ to do this?”

Break-out session: Then we broke them up into groups so that the students who wished to join these work groups could do the following: discuss the topic, write out an OUTLINE of the paper, and write the ‘Research Question’ they would tackle… At this stage, 2 new groups were formed, with 2 additional topics:

  • “A Survey of officers of Negros Universities’ Student Governments on their Freedom Advocacies”
  • The New Government Administration of the Philippines: How Freedom-oriented is it? Issues and Proposals”

We then re-convened so that each group can read out its paper OUTLINE and Research Question. Then came the giving out of the CERTIFICATES of PARTICIPATION to all of the attendees… To wrap up, we called on everyone to COMMIT themselves to seeing their papers through to the end (i.e., submission by first week of January 2011)… 🙂

*Jeny-Rose is to upload onto the Kasanag Study Center FB group the individual certificate-handing photos.

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Please visit the official UNIV Web site:

http://univforum.org/

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Click here for a simple GUIDE to RESEARCH:

https://youniv.wordpress.com/category/univ-research/

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Other related articles:

UNIV 2011 “Freedom”

UNIV “Setting Foundations for the Future”

UNIV 2010 Winning Videos!

🙂

UNIV 2011 4th of July

4th of July and Freedom

When 4th of July comes, there come to mind concepts like freedom and independence.  But what really is FREEDOM?  Are those nations that declare themselves true democracies truly free?  What about judicial systems and national laws that stifle true personal freedoms and go against such basic human rights as right to life and religious freedom?

Cuando venga la fecha 4 de julio ―que es muy importante para la zona norteamericana―, vienen a la mente los conceptos de ‘libertad e independencia’.  Pero parece que aun las naciones ‘más libres’, más ‘democráticas’ carecen de la verdadera libertad: las cortes y los sistemas judiciales legislan contra la vida, p.ej., como hemos visto en España y en EE.UU., entre otras naciones.

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I strongly suggest that students doing UNIV tackle the topic:

Querría sugerir que los universitari@s aborden el tema:

“Anti-Life Courts and Laws: Freedom? or License?”

La ley pro-muerte: libertad? or libertinaje?

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The links that follow are just a few of the many references you can have on this very important issue…

Los enlaces que siguen son solamente una pequeña muestra de la bibliografía que se puede encontrar acerca de este tema importantísimo…

United States:

http://www.ruthblog.org/2010/07/01/our-broken-confirmation-process/

http://www.lifesitenews.com/ldn/2010/jun/10062806.html

España:

http://manifiestoporlavida.wordpress.com/

http://www.provida.es/comunicados.htm

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I would likewise highly recommend the sources found on this link:

Recomendaría, como recurso principal, los enlaces que encontraréis aquí:

http://opusdeitoday.org/2010/05/pro-life/

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UNIV 2011 Jacques Maritain

Jacques Maritain

ENGLISH

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/maritain/

http://maritain.nd.edu/jmc/

Jacques Maritain (1882–1973), French philosopher and political thinker, was one of the principal exponents of Thomism in the twentieth century and an influential interpreter of the thought of St Thomas Aquinas.

Maritain saw himself as working in continuity with the thought of Thomas Aquinas, and his writings frequently contain quotations from and references to Thomas’ texts. While his turn to Catholicism and his intellectual itinerary were largely due to personal reasons and to the influence of friends, his defense of Catholic thought and Thomistic philosophy were undoubtedly affected by events involving his adopted church.

Maritain’s early writings sought to address some of the concerns arising out of these events. Maritain took it upon himself to develop some aspects of Thomistic philosophy to address the problems of the contemporary world.

Maritain’s most enduring legacy is undoubtedly his moral and political philosophy, and the influence of his work on human rights can be seen, not only in the United Nations Declaration of 1948 but, it has been claimed, in a number of national declarations, such as the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the preamble to the Constitution of the Fourth French Republic (1946) — this last was likely a reflection of Maritain’s lengthy correspondence with the French war hero and, later, President, General Charles DeGaulle. Maritain’s Christian humanism and personalism have also had a significant influence in the social encyclicals of Pope Paul VI and in the thought of Pope John Paul II.

Maritain’s moral and political philosophy lies within what may be called the Aristotelian-Thomistic natural law tradition. Maritain held, however, that Aristotelian ethics, by itself, was inadequate because it lacked knowledge of humanity’s ultimate end. The Thomistic view — that there is a law in human nature that is derivative of (though knowable separately from) a divine or eternal law and that humanity’s ‘end’ goes beyond anything attainable in this life — was, Maritain thought, a significant advance on what Aristotle had provided.

Following Aquinas, Maritain maintained that there is a natural law that is ‘unwritten’ but immanent in nature. Specifically, given that nature has a teleological character, one can know what a thing ‘should’ do or how it ‘should’ be used by examining its ‘end’ and the ‘normality of its functioning.’ Maritain therefore defines ‘natural law’ as “an order or a disposition that the human reason may discover and according to which the human will must act to accord itself with the necessary ends of the human being” (La loi naturelle, p. 21; see Man and the State, p. 86). This law “prescribes our most fundamental duties” (Man and the State, p. 95) and is coextensive with morality.

There is, Maritain holds, a single natural law governing all beings with a human nature. The first principles of this law are knownconnaturally, not rationally or through concepts — by an activity that Maritain, following Aquinas, called ‘synderesis.’ Thus, ‘natural ‘law’ is ‘natural’ because it not only reflects human nature, but is known naturally. Maritain acknowledges, however, that knowledge of the natural law varies throughout humanity and according to individuals’ capacities and abilities, and he speaks of growth in an individual’s or a collectivity’s moral awareness. This allows him to reply to the challenge that there cannot be any universal, natural law because no such law is known or respected universally. Again, though this law is progressively known, it is never known completely, and so the natural law is never exhausted in any particular articulation of it. This recognition of the historical element in human consciousness did not, however, prevent Maritain from holding that this law is objective and binding.

A key notion in Maritain’s moral philosophy is that of human freedom. He says that the ‘end’ of humanity is to be free but, by ‘freedom,’ he does not mean license or pure rational autonomy, but the realisation of the human person in accord with his or her nature — specifically, the achievement of moral and spiritual perfection. Maritain’s moral philosophy, then, cannot be considered independently of his analysis of human nature. Maritain distinguishes between the human being as an individual and as a person. Human beings are ‘individuals’ who are related to a common, social order of which they are parts. But they are also persons. The person is a ‘whole’, is an object of dignity, “must be treated as an end” (Les droits de l’homme, p. 84) and has a transcendent destiny. In both the material and the spiritual order, however, human beings participate in a ‘common good.’ Thus, one is an individual in virtue of being a material being; one is a person so far as one is capable of intellectual activity and freedom. Still, while distinct, both elements are equally necessary to being a human being. It is in virtue of their individuality that human beings have obligations to the social order, but it is in virtue of their personality that they cannot be subordinated to that order. Maritain’s emphasis on the value of the human person has been described as a form of personalism, which he saw as avia media between individualism and socialism.

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At the time of his death, Maritain was arguably the best known Catholic philosopher in the world. The breadth of his philosophical work, his influence in the social philosophy of the Catholic Church, and his ardent defenses of human rights made him one of the central figures of his times.

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For the topic of Personalism, click here:

Personalism in a Nutshell

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ESPAÑOL

http://www.humanismointegral.com/Indices/1.%20Maritain_Gral.htm#cinco

Jacques Maritain fue uno de los más grandes pensadores del siglo XX. Fue un hombre de profunda pasión religiosa, filosófica y cívica, así como un testigo activo y participante en los acontecimientos de su tiempo.

Fue uno de los padres de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Hombre de 1948 y uno de los grandes defensores del ideal democrático amenazado por las ideologías totalitarias del siglo pasado. Sus reflexiones sobre democracia, arte y ciencia constituyen un instrumento sólido y efectivo para la interpretación de los cambios que experimenta el mundo de hoy.

Jacques Maritain reintrodujo la riqueza universal y milenaria del pensamiento cristiano al abordar los temas más apreciados por el hombre contemporáneo: desde su sufrimiento a la acción política y social; desde la libertad a la belleza; desde la adhesión a la fe a la autonomía de la razón.

El suyo fue un mensaje de libertad y de independencia de la inteligencia, de vigilancia crítica de los tiempos y de compromiso con un futuro de diálogo y cooperación entre los hombres y las culturas. Maritain fue un filósofo de la nueva frontera mundial y su humanismo integral definió el alma de nuestra villa global.

Una breve biografía de Jacques Maritain:

http://www.humanismointegral.com/DOCS_1_Maritain/1_DOCS_BIOGRAFICOS/111_4_Cronologia.html

A principio de los años 30, visitó Canadá y EE.UU. (por la cual había una conexión íntima entre Francia y el Nuevo Mundo); durante esta época se publicó el libro “Libertad en el Mundo Moderno”.

Hacia 1936, con ocasión de su viaje a América Latina, cuando los problemas sociales habían relegado en todas partes a un segundo plano los problemas estéticos, filosóficos y religiosos, que ocuparon hasta entonces a las nuevas generaciones, fue nuevamente Maritain quien nos salvó de ciertos errores y de ciertas ilusiones políticas, que en mayor o menor grado nos habían deslumbrado.

El autor de ‘Del régimen temporal y de la libertad’ nos abrió un nuevo camino en el terreno político, así como antes nos lo abriera en el metafísico. El fundamento era el mismo; el sentido común. Desde la filosofía del sentido común, el maestro de Meudon nos revelaba la política del sentido común.

http://arvo.net/etica-y-politica/bien-comun-la-maduracion-de-un-concepto/gmx-niv894-con16781.htm

Para Jacques y Raissa Maritain: “Lo que constituye el bien común de la sociedad política no es sólo el conjunto de los bienes o servicios de utilidad pública o de interés nacional (carreteras, puertos, escuelas, etc.) que suponen la organización de la vida común, ni las buenas finanzas del Estado, ni su potencia militar; no es solamente el entramado de leyes justas, de buenas costumbres o de sabias instituciones que dan su estructura a la nación, ni la herencia de sus grandes recuerdos históricos, de sus símbolos y de sus glorias, de sus tradiciones vivas y de sus tesoros de cultura. El bien común comprende todas estas cosas, pero aún mucho más, y más profundo y más humano; pues también y ante todo comprende la propia suma (muy diferente de una simple colección de unidades yuxtapuestas, pues, como Aristóteles nos enseña, incluso en el orden matemático seis es algo distinto de tres más tres), comprende la suma, decimos, o la integración sociológica de cuanto hay de conciencia cívica, de virtudes políticas y de sentido del derecho y de la libertad, y de todo cuanto hay de actividad, de prosperidad material y de riquezas del espíritu, de sabiduría hereditaria inconscientemente activa, de rectitud moral, de justicia, de amistad, de felicidad, de virtud y de heroísmo en las vidas individuales de los miembros de la comunidad, debido a que todo esto es, en cierta medida, comunicable, y revierte sobre cada miembro de la sociedad, ayudándole así a perfeccionar su vida y su libertad de persona. Es todo esto lo que constituye auténtica vida humana de la multitud”[10].

Los Maritain son tomistas pero al momento de describir al bien común colocan el acento en la dimensión espiritual del mismo. Para ellos el individuo humano es para el Estado pero el Estado es para la persona. Este aparente juego conceptual significa que “el hombre no está totalmente ordenado a la sociedad política por cuanto es en sí mismo y por cuanto hay en él”[11]. El ser humano es miembro de una comunidad y en cuanto a esto se le subordina. Sin embargo, el ser humano es más que un miembro de la comunidad. Posee una dimensión trascendente a todo lo material. Así es que el Estado que incluye en sí mismo a los individuos ha de tener como fin a la persona, es decir, al hombre integralmente considerado, al sujeto individual organizado y animado por el espíritu.

El insistir que la persona humana es trascendente a toda institución por su condición de  sustancia corpórea que posee espíritu situó a los Maritain dentro del ámbito de los «personalistas». De hecho la amistad de Emmanuel Mounier – padre del personalismo contemporáneo –y de los Maritain fue intensa y prolongada. Los Maritain conformaron parte del círculo de intelectuales en torno a la revista Esprit fundada por Mounier. Todos en este ambiente afirmaban la trascendencia de la persona respecto de cualquier sistema. Con diferentes lenguajes más o menos todos intuían que la persona no es una cosa y no puede ser usada como mero medio, como instrumento, como herramienta.

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Para el tema del PERSONALISMO, haced clic aquí:

Personalismo en resumen

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ITALIANO

Libertà in Maritain

1) Maritain in “Humanisme integral” (1936) ha criticato duramente i fascismi permettendo ai cattolici di abbandonare le visioni del passato e di recuperare un rapporto positivo con le libertà moderne.


2) In “L’uomo e lo Stato” determina il rapporto tra la persona e lo Stato.La persona è nello Stato ma non si risolve interamente nello Stato. Il suo fine ultimo è trascendente.Ciò significa che lo Stato non può essere totale, deve rispettare diritti e libertà della pesona.La libertà i i diritti non sono fondati ma “riconosciuti” dallo Stato che nel rispetto di quei diritti fonda la sua legittimità.


3) La libertà non è anarchia – fare ciò che uno vuole. La libertà trova il suo ordine nel “fine” naturale. Vi sono due forme di libertà: la libertà da (negativa) e la libertà di (positiva).
La “libertà da” è la libertà dagli ostacoli che la limitano, l’opposizione alle catene.
La “libertà di” è la libertà di essere, la libertà di realizzazione. Questa porta alla distruzione quando avviene contro la natura dell’io; alla realizzazione quando perfeziona la natura dell’io secondo il suo fine.

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