Spanish Lesson 2

Spanish Lesson 2

1) Review of Letters of the Alphabet and Pronunciation.

2) Review of Subject Pronouns.

3) Review of Definite and Indefinite Articles:

*Taken from:  An Essential Course in Modern Spanish, by H. Ramsden

Nouns in Spanish are either masculine or feminine and each noun should be memorized with its gender.  There are, however, certain guides to the gender of a given noun: (a) in the meaning of the word, and (b) in its ending.

(a) Nouns denoting male beings are masculine and those denoting female beings are feminine:

el hombre man la mujer woman
el señor gentleman la señora lady
el padre father la madre mother
el hijo son la hija daughter
el tío uncle la tía aunt
el abuelo grandfather la abuela grandmother
el rey king la reina queen
el toro bull la vaca cow

N.B.  A masculine plural may often refer to persons of both sexes:

mis padres, my parents

los hijos, the son(s) and daughter(s), children

nuestros tíos, our aunt and uncle

los abuelos, the grandparents

los señores de González, Mr and Mrs González

los Reyes Católicos, the Catholic Monarchs

(b) (i) Nouns ending in –o­ are masculine:

el libro book el edificio building
el capítulo chapter el vaso tumbler, glass
el periódico newspaper el vino wine

EXCEPTION:  la mano (hand), la radio (radio, wireless)

(b) (ii) Nouns ending in –a­ are feminine:

la hora hour la casa house
la fecha date la idea idea
la fábrica factory la guía guide (book)

EXCEPTIONS:  I. Words from the GREEK ending in –ma: el idioma (language), el telegrama (telegram), el programa (programme), etc.  II. Words denoting male beings: el guía (guide), el Papa (the Pope), el guardia (policeman), el cura (Priest), etc.  III.  El día (day), el tranvía (tram), el mapa (map), el planeta (planet), el cometa (comet).

(b) (iii) Nouns ending in –ie, –ión, -dad, -tad, -umbre ­ are feminine:

la superficie surface la amistad friendship
la especie sort, kind la libertad freedom
la estación station la virtud virtue
la negación negation la juventud youth
la edad age la cumbre peak, summit
la bondad goodness la servidumbre servitude

EXCEPTIONS: A few words in –ie and –ión referring to material objects: el pie (foot), el avión (aeroplane), el camión (lorry, truck), el gurrión (sparrow).

–> AGREEMENT: Articles and adjectives agree in number and gender with the noun they qualify.

Singular Masculine Singular feminine Plural masculine Plural feminine
DEFINITE ARTICLE el la los las
INDEFINITE ARTICLE un una See note1 See note1

Note 1: The indefinite article has plural forms unos and unas meaning some (unos libros interesantes, some interesting books), though the English some may frequently be left unexpressed in Spanish or be renderred by algunos.

–o–o–o–o–

EJERCICIOS:

A.  Complete with un or una:

1. Yo deseo ___ lápiz.

2. Felipe necesita ___ gramática.

3. Ustedes estudian ___ lengua.

4. Nosotros necesitamos ___ cuaderno.

5. ¿Desea usted ___ pluma?

6. Ellas desean ___ libro.

7. ¿Necesita Tomás ___ lápiz?

8. Yo deseo estudiar ___ lengua.

9. ¿Desea usted ___ cuaderno?

10. Felipe y Ana desean ___ pluma.

B.  Translate to Spanish:

1.  a pencil 5. an hour 9.  the lesson 13. the woman
2. a father 6. a (female) student 10. the grammar book 14. the notebook
3. a book 7. a pen 11. the man 15. the rule
4. a mother 8. a table 12. the (male) student 16. the chair

*Prepare for a QUIZ next week (definite & indefinite articles, vocabulary/translation).

4) VERBS: THE 3 CONJUGATIONS:

*Taken from:  An Essential Course in Modern Spanish, by H. Ramsden

There are 3 classes (or conjugations) of verbs in Spanish: those whose infinitive (English –to —) ends in –ar belong to the first conjugation (comprar, to buy; mandar, to send), those ending in –er belong to the second conjugation (vender, to sell; comer, to eat), and those in –ir belong to the third conjugation (vivir, to live; escribir, to write).

THE PRESENT INDICATIVE.  The present indicative tense is formed by adding to the stem (the infinitive minus –ar, –er or –ir) certain personal endings:

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