Spanish Lesson 2

Spanish Lesson 2

1) Review of Letters of the Alphabet and Pronunciation.

2) Review of Subject Pronouns.

3) Review of Definite and Indefinite Articles:

*Taken from:  An Essential Course in Modern Spanish, by H. Ramsden

Nouns in Spanish are either masculine or feminine and each noun should be memorized with its gender.  There are, however, certain guides to the gender of a given noun: (a) in the meaning of the word, and (b) in its ending.

(a) Nouns denoting male beings are masculine and those denoting female beings are feminine:

el hombre man la mujer woman
el señor gentleman la señora lady
el padre father la madre mother
el hijo son la hija daughter
el tío uncle la tía aunt
el abuelo grandfather la abuela grandmother
el rey king la reina queen
el toro bull la vaca cow

N.B.  A masculine plural may often refer to persons of both sexes:

mis padres, my parents

los hijos, the son(s) and daughter(s), children

nuestros tíos, our aunt and uncle

los abuelos, the grandparents

los señores de González, Mr and Mrs González

los Reyes Católicos, the Catholic Monarchs

(b) (i) Nouns ending in –o­ are masculine:

el libro book el edificio building
el capítulo chapter el vaso tumbler, glass
el periódico newspaper el vino wine

EXCEPTION:  la mano (hand), la radio (radio, wireless)

(b) (ii) Nouns ending in –a­ are feminine:

la hora hour la casa house
la fecha date la idea idea
la fábrica factory la guía guide (book)

EXCEPTIONS:  I. Words from the GREEK ending in –ma: el idioma (language), el telegrama (telegram), el programa (programme), etc.  II. Words denoting male beings: el guía (guide), el Papa (the Pope), el guardia (policeman), el cura (Priest), etc.  III.  El día (day), el tranvía (tram), el mapa (map), el planeta (planet), el cometa (comet).

(b) (iii) Nouns ending in –ie, –ión, -dad, -tad, -umbre ­ are feminine:

la superficie surface la amistad friendship
la especie sort, kind la libertad freedom
la estación station la virtud virtue
la negación negation la juventud youth
la edad age la cumbre peak, summit
la bondad goodness la servidumbre servitude

EXCEPTIONS: A few words in –ie and –ión referring to material objects: el pie (foot), el avión (aeroplane), el camión (lorry, truck), el gurrión (sparrow).

–> AGREEMENT: Articles and adjectives agree in number and gender with the noun they qualify.

Singular Masculine Singular feminine Plural masculine Plural feminine
DEFINITE ARTICLE el la los las
INDEFINITE ARTICLE un una See note1 See note1

Note 1: The indefinite article has plural forms unos and unas meaning some (unos libros interesantes, some interesting books), though the English some may frequently be left unexpressed in Spanish or be renderred by algunos.



A.  Complete with un or una:

1. Yo deseo ___ lápiz.

2. Felipe necesita ___ gramática.

3. Ustedes estudian ___ lengua.

4. Nosotros necesitamos ___ cuaderno.

5. ¿Desea usted ___ pluma?

6. Ellas desean ___ libro.

7. ¿Necesita Tomás ___ lápiz?

8. Yo deseo estudiar ___ lengua.

9. ¿Desea usted ___ cuaderno?

10. Felipe y Ana desean ___ pluma.

B.  Translate to Spanish:

1.  a pencil 5. an hour 9.  the lesson 13. the woman
2. a father 6. a (female) student 10. the grammar book 14. the notebook
3. a book 7. a pen 11. the man 15. the rule
4. a mother 8. a table 12. the (male) student 16. the chair

*Prepare for a QUIZ next week (definite & indefinite articles, vocabulary/translation).


*Taken from:  An Essential Course in Modern Spanish, by H. Ramsden

There are 3 classes (or conjugations) of verbs in Spanish: those whose infinitive (English –to —) ends in –ar belong to the first conjugation (comprar, to buy; mandar, to send), those ending in –er belong to the second conjugation (vender, to sell; comer, to eat), and those in –ir belong to the third conjugation (vivir, to live; escribir, to write).

THE PRESENT INDICATIVE.  The present indicative tense is formed by adding to the stem (the infinitive minus –ar, –er or –ir) certain personal endings:


Spanish Lesson 1

Spanish Lesson 1

Spanish - Lesson I:

 1) Pronunciación:

 Las vocales:
 a. fama, patata, padre
 e. leche, peseta, euro
 i. mínimo, fino, Filipinas
 o. foto, Colón, jornada
 u. puro, mundial, juventud

 Los Consonantes:
 b, v: bata, vaca, hambre, enviar
 c: cero, acción; poco, pacto, fábrica
 ch: chico, muchacha, leche
 d: doy, anda, molde;
 seda, madre, ciudad, Madrid
 f: fama, frente, sufrir
 g: gemelo, coge, surgir;
 grande, agua, paga, alegre
 h: hombre, hambre, hacha
 j: jota, granja, ajo, jajaja
 k: kilo, kilómetro
 l: león, pala, hablar, leer
 ll: llama, llamar, calle, pollo
 m: madre, amo, ambos, mamá
 n: nuevo, andar;
 banco, ganga, monja, longitud
 ñ: niño, niña, ñoño
 p: papá, Papa, patata, padre
 q: que, Aquino, querer
 r, rr: pero, perro, ferrocarril
 s: saber, Estados Unidos, España
 t: terrible, teléfono
 x: taxi, examen
 y: Yauyos, ya, yo
 z: zapato, manzana, azul

 2) El Nombre (The Noun)
 -just like in English, nouns in Spanish are substantive: they function 
 as the subject of a sentence.
 -in Spanish: Nouns have "gender": a noun is either masculine or 
 feminine (you have to memorize these)
 P.ej. (por ejemplo):
 -prelado, prelatura

 3) Articles - definite & indefinite
 Definite "the":
 - el (masc., sing.), la (fem., sing.)
 - los (masc., pl.), las (fem., pl.)
 Indefinite "a", "an", "some"
 - un (masc., sing.), una (fem., sing.)
 - unos (masc., pl.), unas (fem., pl.)

 4) Verbs: Action words
 -In Spanish, you CONJUGATE verbs (they change in form depending on the 
 tense, & person & number)

 Subject Pronouns:


 --> Indicative MOOD
 --> Present tense
 --> Simple past ("preterite") tense
 --> Past progressive ("imperfect")
 --> Future tense
 --> Subjunctive MOOD
 --> Present
 --> Past (imperfect) subjunctive
 --> Future (rarely used/seen)
 p.ej. En Roma, donde fueres, haz lo que vieres (When in 
 Rome, do as the Romans do.)
 --> Conditional tense

Filipinos, Unite for Life!

Inter-faith Rally, 13 Feb. 2011, Sunday, “Filipinos, Unite for Life!”

Sec. (former Manila Mayor) Lito Atienza was MC, and sent strong signals from beginning to end that we the Filipino people will NOT allow the RH Bill to pass, as it is a waste of the people’s money (millions of Pesos for contraceptives?!? condoms?!?).  The funds could be better put to use by being invested in: education, REAL health (such as true basic medicines, medical facilities), generation of JOBS, etc.

Congressman Anthony Golez

as a medical doctor, spoke strongly in opposition to the RH Bill, as this will not provide what the health of Filipinos truly demands: they need medicines and hospitals to cure sicknesses, NOT contraceptives and condoms, the poor people need food and education, not contraceptives and condoms.  How can contraceptives be called “basic medicines” in the Bill?!?

Senator Aquilino “Nene” Pimentel

spoke, denouncing the continued push of the RH Bill in successive Congresses, just to push the agenda of global groups who heavily fund the bill to force contraception which has been proved to lead to abortion and a contraceptive mentality.

He was happy to declare that the entire community of Ayala-Alabang has legislated, through an ordinance, opposition to the implementation of the RH Bill in the entire Ayala-Alabang.

He called on the Barangay Captain of Ayala-Alabang, who proudly declared his community to be 1 of 42,000 barangays nationwide to be completely pro-life and stand in opposition to the RH Bill.

Congresswoman Rachel “Cutie” DEL MAR (daughter of Congressman Raul del Mar)

representing CEBU, explained that they have just staged a successful anti-RH Bill protest rally in Cebu City to protest the continued push of the RH Bill which does NOT directly address the issues of poverty (poverty eradication or alleviation) and development of the Filipino people.  She declared the entire CEBU province to be pro-life and standing against the RH Bill.  Cong. RAUL DEL MAR and Cong. Rachel “Cutie” Del Mar are shown here during the CEBU pro-life Rally last Feb. 11:

Congresswoman Aliah Dimaporo

spoke, as a Muslim and in behalf of the Muslim community, against the RH Bill asnot providing real solutions to the problems it purports to solve: poverty, underdevelopment, need for education, etc.

Congresswoman Dimaporo spoke also at the World Youth Alliance

“Global Perspective on the RH Bill”

held recently at the U.P. College of Public Administration:


Congressman Amado Bagatsing

spoke against the RH Bill.  Hailing from a family of public officials who have traditionally been pro-life (e.g. Mayor Bagatsing of Manila years back), Cong. Bagatsing denounced the RH Bill as not leading to true progress and development and does not solve the country’s problems that need real solutions (providing school classrooms, health and medicines, jobs for the unemployed), etc.

Here’s a Pro-Life Phils. document reporting on Pro-Life Talks by Congressman RAUL DEL MAR and Congressman AMADO BAGATSING:

Christine Jacob, superstar swimmer and Mom of 5,

spoke in opposition to the “sex education” component of the Bill that will force her to accept “sex education” of children from Grade 5 (!) up to 4th year High School by government health workers (!).  “What do they know about true sex education? The parents have the direct right and obligation to impart this, as it is they who have full/better knowledge of their children!”.


Fr. Anton Pascual

(Caritas Manila, TV Maria Phils., Kapanalig Radyo Veritas, etc.)

spoke strongly against the RH Bill as leading to a contraceptive mentality and, therefore, eventually to the approval of abortion.  He hailed the Congressmen and Senators opposing the RH Bill as true “kinatawan ng mamamayang Pilipino” (true representatives of the Filipino people).

See also “No to Abortion!” video, Fr. Anton Pascual, here:


Congressman Michael Velarde, Sectoral Representative, BUHAY (“Life”) Party-list

also spoke in opposition to the RH Bill and fully endorsing & supporting this inter-faith pro-life Rally.



A Muslim mother of 10 spoke about how the propositions of the RHBill –esp. its contraceptive stance– run counter to her Muslim belief: that LIFE COMES FROM GOD and LIFE HAS TO BE NURTURED and children have to be taught to become good citizens, as opposed to rejecting having more siblings.


This comes from the Pro-Life Coalition:

As of 5:30pm ,12  feb the ffw prolife organizations confirmed their attendance to the 13 Feb Filipinos! Unite for Life Interfaith Prayer Rally at PICC 4 PM:

1) Knights of the Altar ,Our Lady of Victory Church
2) Kababaihan Maynila
3) Tarlac Diocese leaders and SEMINARIANS
4) Quiapo Church leaders Family an Life
5) Mahal ko si Lolo Mahal ko si Lola movement
6) Cenacle groups
7) Family and Life groups of Lipa
8) Order of Malta
9) Home for Amgels
10) Caritas Manila
11) Radio Veritas 846 Kapanalig community
12) Pilipinas Kong Mahal Movement
13) Youth Pinoy
14) Society of St Vincent de Paul and poor  beneficiaries
15) Human Life International (HLI)
16) Alliance for Family , ALFI
17) CFCFFL,Manila and Cavite Diocese
18) Couples for Christ Global Mission Foundation Inc
19) Ligaya ng Panginoon
20) St James Parish Alabang
21) all parishes of the  Diocese of Paranaque
22) Parish leaders and members of Santuario San Jose Greenhills
23) Medical Practitioners for life
24) Muslims for life ,Quiapo and Baseco
25) Intercessors for the Philippines Evangelicals
26) Prolife Philippines Movement
27) Pro life coalition for Family and Life
28) Ang Kapatiran Party
29) Philippine Solidarity Foundation
30) Buhay Party list
31) El Shaddai Catholic group
32) Christian Family Movement
33) Prolife legislators from Senate and Congress
34) Holy Family Schools 
35) Sister of the Servers of San Jose 
36) EDSA Shrine Community 
37) Salesians and Parish  of Barangay Don Bosco  c/o Fr Gerry Battad SD 
38) Mary Help of Christians Bicutan 38)Philippine for Life and Family 
40) PSBA Schools Student Council
41) Solidarity 4 Sovereignty 
42) Familly Cooperation Health Services Foundation, FAMCOHSEF 
44) Our Lady of the ROSARY Healing Rosary Crusade 
46) PPCRV-c/o Amb Tita de Villa 
47) 500 Devotees from NAZARENO GROUP Quiapo 
48) Salesian Sister of Don Bosco 
49) Baptist Group from Lighthouse Bible Churches of Bishop Reuben Abante 
50) ARMADA-army of mary gainst death and abortion

51) Catholic Women’s League Archdiocese of Manila and the CWL National
52) Quiapo Muslim community and the faculty and students of the Bangsamoro Excellent Students/Teachers Academy (B.E.S.T)
53) Habihan School
54) Don Bosco Seminary Group, Mary Help of Christians

55) University of the Philippines Scholars Choose LIFE Coalition (click here for their Facebook group)


MANILA TIMES news report:


Facebook group “100% Katolikong Pinoy” prepared a video featuring images of the Feb. 13 rally:


If you want your photos and news reports (e.g., more accurate or verbatim transcriptions of speeches) or links to be added here, please email: