Collective Intelligence

MIT Lecture at Accenture:

“Developing Collective Intelligence: Can we get there by 2010?”

by Prof. Srini Devadas, MIT



On the one hand, there are technical requirements; on the other hand, there are the socio-political networks required:

Put these together and you’ve got “CLOUD Computing”.  Now, what is CLOUD Computing”?

= on-demand computation + data access anytime from anywhere.

…which means, billions of computers providing machine power.

BUT, there are many components of the solution that cannot be done by computers.  So you need HUMAN POWER!  Let’s call that “CROWD Computing”.

= billions of humans providing brain power…

What are emerging (online) applications of this?

  • Amazon EC2
  • Google ApplicationEngine
  • Microsoft Azure

Applications and Security Models:

à    Individual user backs up public data

à    User backs up private data

à    User wants to back up and share private data (e.g., photos, Flickr)

à    User wants to run a private application for private data

Data Integrity




Integrity of Application


RECALL our 3 Scenarios: Issues:

Ongoing Research (especially at MIT):

à    Trusted Computing Modules (TPMs) = small crypto-processors

à    Fully homomorphic encryption (private computation) (cf. IBM researcher, Gentry, 2008) – data encrypted by client to produce encrypted result that can be decrypted only by the client

à    Designing secure systems

*    Issues: Information flow tracking, Security testing of systems and applications software, etc.

Computational CHALLENGES in our 3 Scenarios:

Let’s look at the HUMAN INTELLIGENCE angle in every Scenario:

The GOOD news and BAD news about computational power:

Let’s consider again: ‘CROWD Computing’…

Economic motive: You wanna get the solution cheap !

= you want to harness the power of a group of people which computers cannot provide … affordably

Have you seen Amazon’s “Mechanical Turk” before?

= You want to contract the services of a group of humans, make them compete, for a fee, to get to a goal.

RESULT (via Better, quicker results! … more cheaply 🙂


  • “ESP”, an Online Game developed by Lois von Ahn (CMU) : Label randomly chosen images ― The more accurately you label the image, the more points you gain…the more $ you earn…

Back to our 3 Scenarios: CLOUD + CROWD Computing :

Scenario 1:

q     Match image (of rash) with images from a database; Best match? Let Doctors ‘compete’, then identify a doctor as the ‘chief’ (one who has the last word)

Scenario 2:

q     and so on and so forth…

Scenario 3:

q     and so on and so forth…

‘Collaborative Coding’ (CC):

* Throw in Human competition, then ITERATE

* you can use


* You can use the CLOUD to automatically generate code, e.g., Convert “housekeeping” rules to high-level policies 🙂

Can we get there by 2020? APPLICATIONS:

* A million software ‘developers’ together write a distributed online video game.

* Seen on a blog !

“Global Math community”

* Neighborhood Crime Prevention

*    There are TRAFFIC problems everywhere! How about a traffic-solving community? 🙂




UNIV in Bacolod

Bacolod City, Philippines

Bacolod City is the capital of Negros Occidental. Having a total of 499,497 inhabitants as of August 1, 2007, it is the most populous city in the Western Visayas Region.  It is currently ranked as the 17th most populous city in the Philippines.  It is part of a metropolitan area called Metro Bacolod, which includes the cities of Silay and Talisay.  It is notable for its world famous MassKara Festival held during the 3rd week of October. Known for being a relatively friendly city, it bears the nicknames “City of Smiles” and “Football City of the Philippines”.


UNIV Orientation, 10 July 2010:

33 attendees from 5 schools! 7 paper topics generated!

This was a milestone for Kasanag Study Center! 🙂 Here’s the Program we followed:


We first introduced UNIV –an international student research congress– and its nature and aims.  We referred to the content of the official website. Then we proceeded to talk about the 2011 theme which is FREEDOM.  Then we showed them the “Conceptual Framework” for generating topic ideas… We needed about 1.5 hours to do this…

Then the 2nd part –which was the practical, ‘workshop’, portion– was when we asked the attendees to share with us the specific paper topics that occurred to them as the UNIV orientation was going on… At this point, several very interesting paper topics were suggested:

  • Nursing students: “Patients’ Rights and their upholding: How aware are Nursing Students and Medical Personnel?”
  • Engineering students: “Rights of the Unborn and life-related Legislation”
  • Sociology majors: “Notions of Freedom from the Perspective of Indigenous Peoples”
  • “Freedom and FASHION: Are modern-day fashion trends truly ‘free’?”
  • “Same-Sex ‘Marriage’: Are they ‘free’ to do this?”

Break-out session: Then we broke them up into groups so that the students who wished to join these work groups could do the following: discuss the topic, write out an OUTLINE of the paper, and write the ‘Research Question’ they would tackle… At this stage, 2 new groups were formed, with 2 additional topics:

  • “A Survey of officers of Negros Universities’ Student Governments on their Freedom Advocacies”
  • The New Government Administration of the Philippines: How Freedom-oriented is it? Issues and Proposals”

We then re-convened so that each group can read out its paper OUTLINE and Research Question. Then came the giving out of the CERTIFICATES of PARTICIPATION to all of the attendees… To wrap up, we called on everyone to COMMIT themselves to seeing their papers through to the end (i.e., submission by first week of January 2011)… 🙂

*Jeny-Rose is to upload onto the Kasanag Study Center FB group the individual certificate-handing photos.


Please visit the official UNIV Web site:


Click here for a simple GUIDE to RESEARCH:


Other related articles:

UNIV 2011 “Freedom”

UNIV “Setting Foundations for the Future”

UNIV 2010 Winning Videos!


UNIV 2011 4th of July

4th of July and Freedom

When 4th of July comes, there come to mind concepts like freedom and independence.  But what really is FREEDOM?  Are those nations that declare themselves true democracies truly free?  What about judicial systems and national laws that stifle true personal freedoms and go against such basic human rights as right to life and religious freedom?

Cuando venga la fecha 4 de julio ―que es muy importante para la zona norteamericana―, vienen a la mente los conceptos de ‘libertad e independencia’.  Pero parece que aun las naciones ‘más libres’, más ‘democráticas’ carecen de la verdadera libertad: las cortes y los sistemas judiciales legislan contra la vida, p.ej., como hemos visto en España y en EE.UU., entre otras naciones.


I strongly suggest that students doing UNIV tackle the topic:

Querría sugerir que los universitari@s aborden el tema:

“Anti-Life Courts and Laws: Freedom? or License?”

La ley pro-muerte: libertad? or libertinaje?


The links that follow are just a few of the many references you can have on this very important issue…

Los enlaces que siguen son solamente una pequeña muestra de la bibliografía que se puede encontrar acerca de este tema importantísimo…

United States:



I would likewise highly recommend the sources found on this link:

Recomendaría, como recurso principal, los enlaces que encontraréis aquí:


UNIV 2010 Paper

UNIV 2010 Research Paper presented in Final Paper Presentation (Philippines)


Authentic Human Development and Social Entrepreneurship

Author: Valeroso, Carmina Angelica C.

(St. Scholastica’s College Manila)


“If the soul is left in darkness, sins will be committed.”

Poverty is a type of darkness in society which is the root of some social ills. Nevertheless, there is much hope that this darkness can be dispelled.

In relation to this year’s UNIV theme “Can Christianity Inspire a Global Culture?”, this paper entitled “Authentic Human Development in Poverty Alleviation through Social Entrepreneurship”, aims to study the influence of Christianity on the culture of entrepreneurship as well as on poverty alleviation.

Based on a 2006 data of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, poverty afflicts approximately 15 million Filipinos.  The inaccessibility of some areas makes it a daunting task for government, NGOs and large corporations to execute their poverty alleviation programs.  Social entrepreneurship may be one of the means to meet the needs of the poor in unserved areas since it uses sustainable and scalable approaches.

In answering a social problem such as poverty, the Pope cautions against solutions which create a culture that “detaches itself from its life-giving roots, [because] then it will not become more reasonable or purer, but will fall apart and disintegrate.”

Keeping the Pope’s message in mind, the following objectives were formulated (see above).


The framework illustrates how Christianity teaches that authentic human development concerns the material and spiritual growth of a person, including her transcendent dimension. This Christian idea of authentic human development may influence an entrepreneur to venture into some social enterprise which seeks to alleviate poverty. As depicted in the framework, poverty has multiple indicators and the greater the effort to address each indicator, the greater is the contribution to the development of the person.


The methodology is as follows:

The Christian definition of authentic human development was extracted from Pope Benedict XVI’s encyclical “Caritas in Veritate”.

Meanwhile, the indicators of a multi-dimensional poverty were based on a research entitled “Missing Dimensions of Poverty Data” (Alkire, 2007).

Indicators of Multidimensional Poverty

Dimension Indicators
Material Well Being income poverty, food shortage, housing quality, access to water and sanitation
Bodily Well being malnutrition, child mortality
Mental well being intelligence, psychological well being (meaning, autonomy, competence, relatedness), subjective well being (happiness and over all comfort)
Productivity employment, quality of work (protection, safety, time use, discouraged unemployment, perceptions)
Security victims of violence and theft, perceptions of violence
Social well being Shame (stigma of poverty and shame proneness), humiliation (respect and fair treatment, discrimination, internal humiliation)
Empowerment freedom of choice and actions, control over personal decisions, autonomy, ability to change life (lifestyle, mentality, mind set, outlook), ability to change others/ community

A case study of two (2) social enterprises:

  • Hapinoy; and
  • Rags2Riches

was conducted. The beneficiaries of these 2 businesses are mothers of families in selected communities in Luzon and are also more familiarly referred to as Nanays (moms).

Motivations of social entrepreneurs were gathered from interviews with two businessmen.

In answer to the first objective: The encyclical describes authentic human development as growth in every single dimension of man, that is, in his material and spiritual dimensions, including his transcendent dimension. Pope Benedict XVI emphasized growth in the transcendent dimension, which entails growth in the spirit.  The Holy Father mentions that this growth occurs when man’s “soul comes to know itself and the truths that God has implanted deep within, when he enters into a dialogue with himself and his Creator”.

In answer to Objective no. 2:  Seven (7) indicators were enumerated by Alkire, namely, poverty in:  Material Well-Being, Bodily Well-Being, Security, Work, Mental Well-Being, Social Well-Being, and Empowerment.

To meet the third objective: The conceptual framework shows that authentic human development involves material and spiritual growth.  Material growth can be seen through material and bodily well-being while spiritual growth may be seen through security, work, mental well-being, social well-being, and empowerment.

Hapinoy and Rags2Riches were examined based on the indicators.

Hapinoy is a program of MicroVentures, Inc. which aims to increase the sales and profits of micro-entrepreneur sari-sari store owners nationwide.

On the other hand, Rags2Riches is a business which creates ethical and eco-friendly high-end designer fashion masterpieces and home accessories.  It aims to solve the two predominant faces of injustice in Payatas:  unfair trade and environmental degradation.

The results regarding how Hapinoy and Rags2Riches addressed the material and spiritual growth of the Nanays (moms) will now be presented.


Through Hapinoy and Rags2Riches, the material growth can be seen in the increase in income.  (Those in Hapinoy experienced an increase in sales from less than a hundred thousand monthly to half a million;  while those in Rags2Riches – who previously earned 1 to 2 pesos per rug – were enabled to receive at least the minimum wage daily. The Nanays were also able to expand their stores and acquire other equipment and facilities.

Material growth was also seen through the desire to acquire bodily well-being. The Moms used their higher earnings to provide for household needs. Good nutrition also became a conscious consideration for the Moms.

Moving on to how spiritual growth was achieved, the relevant indicators were examined.  Spiritual growth through having a sense of security was manifested especially in expanding the freedoms they value and have reason to value.  Mental well-being is another indicator related to spiritual growth. Hapinoy and Rags2Riches fed the intellect of the Moms through giving them training and support services so that they can acquire more knowledge regarding entrepreneurship and business environments.

The Moms were enabled to set higher goals for themselves and their family as well as to exercise their freedom of choice and action.  Character development may be seen in their practice of the virtues, such as commitment and simplicity.  The Moms have also learned to place more value in life, happiness and their relationship with God.


Christianity teaches that authentic human development involves growth in the individual’s totality as body and soul, in every single dimension of man including the transcendent.

This study sought to show that the idea of authentic human development, through concern for both material and spiritual well-being, should imbue the social entrepreneur when venturing into social entrepreneurship. This study has highlighted specific cases where social entrepreneurship has also helped alleviate poverty, in the process of creating an enabling environment for the marginalized so they can fulfill and develop themselves.


Learning from the experience of social entrepreneurship, some recommendations can be taken up by the different sectors of society.

  • The youth can be encouraged to get involved in different volunteer activities since these provide them the opportunity to give themselves to others.
  • Programs can also be launched to help parents train their children to be more socially responsible.
  • Giving support to schools which offer Christian formation enables these institutions to continue imparting values through their curriculum, outreach programs and other activities. Children who are exposed to these may more often include Christian ideals in their social behaviors.
  • Dialogue with the authorities can also be kept so that they are provided with data to determine the real cause of poverty. There would be a need to invest time in studying the needs of the poor so as to address all dimensions of the person.
  • Opportunities can also be offered for social entrepreneurs to strengthen their spiritual life and deepen their relationship with God since they will be working in a business model which is others-oriented.


Commission on Higher Education

Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Scholarships and Grants

There’s a new CHED building along C.P. Garcia Ave. (near University Ave.) which houses, among others, the Scholarships-granting unit of CHED called Office of Policy, Planning Research and Information (OPPRI).  It was this unit that gave me a Doctoral Dissertation grant, after I was granted the UP OVCRD Dissertation grant.

There are tons of post-graduate scholarship and thesis grants as well as research travel grants available from CHED.  Please click here for the menu of grants and for Application Forms.

As you can see, your CHED is concerned about you finishing your post-grad education soon –by providing you generous scholarships– so you may help out quickly in the task of EDUCATING our fellow Filipinos 🙂

This tarp meets you at the lobby area of the new CHED building at C.P. Garcia 🙂 “Education is the best gift you can give to your fellowmen, to the nation!”


Two buildings away is the PHIVOLCS building.  In one of its offices, on the first floor, sits the UP Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research & Development (UP OVCRD), which likewise granted me a Doctoral Dissertation grant 🙂  OVCRD aims to promote and enhance R&D undertakings by and in the University of the Philippines Diliman.

I’m currently eyeing the PhD INCENTIVE AWARD, a grant that PhD grads can apply for.  Here are the implementing guidelines:

1. Regular faculty members who obtained their PhD from 2005 onwards may apply. Applicants must have received their PhD within twelve (12) months of application.

2. The grant may be used to support any research/creative work related activity such as but not limited to the following: initial set up of a research laboratory; purchase of equipment, books, materials needed for future research endeavors; conducting preliminary research activity; a research project; artistic work etc.

3. Proponents can avail of funding support for a maximum of two years but fund release will be on a yearly basis subject to submission of reports.

4. Research/creative work related activities that will last for more than a year should be programmed in such a way that each year is a self-contained phase with specific outputs. After the requirements and outputs of the previous year have been completed, the proponent may submit a proposal for renewal for possible funding. Approval of the first year does not guarantee funding for subsequent years.

5. The maximum financial assistance per year is P300,000.00.

Enjoy RESEARCH!!! 🙂